Pallets For Sale
Pallet For Sale
Containerization for transport has spurred the use of pallet because shipping containers have the smooth, level surfaces needed for easy pallet movement. Many pallets can handle a load of 1,000 kg (2,200 lb). Today, about half a billion pallet are made each year and about two billion pallets are in use across the United States alone.
Pallets make it easier to move heavy stacks. Loads with pallets under them can be hauled by forklift trucks of different sizes, or even by hand-pumped and hand-drawn pallet jacks. Movement is easy on a wide, strong, flat floor: concrete is excellent.
The greatest investment needed for economical pallet use is in the construction of commercial or industrial buildings. Ability to pass through standard doors and buildings make handling more convenient. For this reason, some modern pallet standards are designed to pass through standard doorways, for example the europallet (800 mm × 1,200 mm) and the U.S. military 35 in × 45.5 in (890 mm × 1,160 mm).
Organizations using standard pallets for loading and unloading can have much lower costs for handling and storage, with faster material movement than businesses that do not. The exceptions are establishments that move small items such as jewelry or large items such as cars.
But even they can be improved. For instance, the distributors of costume jewelry normally use pallets in their warehouses and car manufacturers use pallets to move components and spare parts. (buy wood pallets, wooden pallets, pallets for sale near me, free pallets near me, amazon pallets, pallets, chep pallets, used pallets for sale, buy wholesale pallets cheap near me, wood pallets near me)
The lack of a single international standard for pallets causes substantial continuing expense in international trade. A single standard is difficult because of the wide variety of needs a standard pallet would have to satisfy: passing doorways, fitting in standard containers, and bringing low labor costs. For example, organizations already handling large pallets often see no reason to pay the higher handling cost of using smaller pallets that can fit through doors.
A truckload of used wooden pallets in California
Due to cost and a need to focus on core business, pallet pooling becomes more and more common. Some pallet suppliers supply users with reusable pallets, sometimes with integral tracking devices. A pallet management company can help supply, clean, repair, and reuse pallets.
Heavy-duty pallets are a form of reusable packaging and are designed to be used multiple times. Lightweight pallets are designed for a single use. In the EU, government legislation based on the Waste Framework Directive requires the reuse of packaging items in preference to recycling and disposal.
Standardization and regulation
Wooden pallets typically consist of three or four stringers that support several deckboards, on top of which goods are placed. In a pallet measurement, the first number is the stringer length and the second is the deckboard length. Square or nearly square pallets help a load resist tipping.
Two-way pallets are designed to be lifted by the deckboards. The standard 48×40 North American pallet, or GMA pallet, has stringers of 48 inches and deckboards of 40 inches, and was standardized by the Grocery Manufacturers Association.
A standard wooden pallet (48 in × 40 in × 6 in or 122 cm × 102 cm × 15 cm) with a static load bearing capacity of 3 short tons (2.7 long tons; 2.7 t) and a 1-short-ton (0.89-long-ton; 0.91 t) dynamic capacity, will weigh approximately 33 to 48 lb (15 to 22 kg) Lightweight plastic pallets can weigh as little as 3 to 15 pounds (1.4 to 6.8 kg), while heavier models may weigh up to 300 pounds (140 kg).
Standard GMA pallets can hold up to 460 pounds (210 kg). GMA pallets typically weigh 37 pounds (17 kg), and are 6+1⁄2 inches (170 mm) tall. Their deck boards measure 3+1⁄4 inches (83 mm) wide and are 5⁄16 inch (7.9 mm) thick each. Other dimensions of pallets have different weight capacities.
Heavy duty IPPC Pallets are approximately 44 inches (1,118 mm) wide by 48 inches (1,219 mm) long, have three wood stringers that are a nominal 4 inches (102 mm) high by 3 inches (76 mm) wide timber, and weigh about 135 pounds (61 kg). Their deck is fully covered by 30 mm (1.18 in) plywood, and is painted in blue in European and Russian countries.
Four-way pallets, or pallets for heavy loads (or general-purpose systems that might have heavy loads) are best lifted by their more rigid stringers. These pallets are usually heavier, bigger and more durable than two-way pallets.
Pallet users want pallets to easily pass through buildings, to stack and fit in racks, to be accessible to forklifts and pallet jacks and to function in automated warehouses. To avoid shipping air, pallets should also pack tightly inside intermodal containers and vans.
No universally accepted standards for pallet dimensions exist. Companies and organizations utilize hundreds of different pallet sizes around the globe. While no single dimensional standard governs pallet production, a few different sizes are widely used.
The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) sanctions six pallet dimensions, detailed in ISO Standard 6780:2003 Flat pallets for intercontinental materials handling — Principal dimensions and tolerances, which was reviewed and confirmed in 2014:
North American Pallets For Sale pallets
Of the top pallets used in North America, the most commonly used by far is the Grocery Manufacturers Association (GMA) pallet, which accounts for 30% of all new wood pallets produced in the United States. The ISO also recognizes the GMA pallet footprint as one of its six standard sizes.
European pallets Pallets For Sale
|Dimensions (W × L × D)||ISO pallet alternative|
|800 mm × 1,200 mm × 145 mm|
31.50 in × 47.24 in × 5.71 in
|ISO1, same size as EUR.|
The pallet weight is 20 – 25 kg.
Weight of a load: 2490 kg.
|EUR 2||1,200 mm × 1,000 mm × 144 mm|
47.24 in × 39.37 in × 5.67 in
|ISO2. The pallet weight is 33 kg.|
Weight of a load: 1470 kg.
|EUR 3||1,000 mm × 1,200 mm × 144 mm|
39.37 in × 47.24 in × 5.67 in
|The pallet weight is 29 kg.|
Weight of a load of 1920 kg.
|EUR 6||800 mm × 600 mm × 144 mm|
31.50 in × 23.62 in × 5.67 in
|ISO0, half the size of EUR.|
The pallet weight is 9.5 kg.
Weight of the safe load: 500 kg.
|600 mm × 400 mm|
23.62 in × 15.75 in
|quarter the size of EUR|
|400 mm × 300 mm|
15.75 in × 11.81 in
|one-eighth the size of EUR|
Due to the International Plant Protection Convention (abbreviated IPPC), most pallets shipped across national borders must be made of materials that are incapable of being a carrier of invasive species of insects and plant diseases. The standards for these pallets are specified in ISPM 15.
Pallets made of raw, untreated wood are not compliant with ISPM 15. To be compliant the pallets (or other wood packaging material) must meet debarked standards, and must be treated by either of the following means under the supervision of an approved agency:
Heat treatment The wood must be heated to achieve a minimum core temperature of 56 °C (132.8 °F) for at least 30 minutes. Pallets treated using this method bear the initials HT near the IPPC logo.
Chemical fumigation The wood must be fumigated with methyl bromide. Pallets treated using this method bear the initials MB near the IPPC logo. From 19 March 2010 the use of methyl bromide as a treatment according to ISPM15 has been banned within all EU member states.
This is due to causing potential harm to the Earth’s stratospheric ozone layer.
Treated wood pallets must be stamped on two opposite sides, indicating either HT for heat treated or MB for methyl bromide treatment.
Pallets made of non-wood materials such as steel, aluminum, plastic, or engineered wood products, such as plywood, oriented strand board, or corrugated fiberboard do not need IPPC approval, and are considered to be exempt from ISPM 15 regulations.
Types Of Wooden Pallets For Sale
Although pallets come in all manner of sizes and configurations, all pallets fall into two very broad categories: “stringer” pallets and “block” pallets. Various software packages exist to assist the pallet maker in designing an appropriate pallet for a specific load, and to evaluate wood options to reduce costs. (buy wood pallets, wooden pallets, pallets for sale near me, free pallets near me, amazon pallets, pallets, chep pallets, used pallets for sale, buy wholesale pallets cheap near me, wood pallets near me)
Stringer Pallets For Sale
Stringer pallets are one of the original models of wooden pallets. They use a frame of three or more parallel pieces of timber (called stringers). The top deckboards are then affixed to the stringers to create the pallet structure. Stringer pallets can have a notch cut into them allowing “four-way” entry. Forklifts can lift a stringer pallet from all four directions, though lifting by the stringers is more secure.
Stringer pallets can be made of both wood and plastic. (buy wood pallets, wooden pallets, pallets for sale near me, free pallets near me, amazon pallets, pallets, chep pallets, used pallets for sale, buy wholesale pallets cheap near me, wood pallets near me)
Block Pallets For Sale
Block pallets are typically stronger than stringer pallets. Block pallets utilize both parallel and perpendicular stringers to better facilitate efficient handling. A block pallet is also known as a “four-way” pallet, since a pallet-jack may be used from any side to move it.
Flush Pallets For Sale
Flush pallets are pallets with deck boards that are flush with the stringers and stringer boards along the ends and sides of the pallet.
Perimeter Base Pallets For Sale
All stringer and some block pallets have “unidirectional bases,” i.e. bottom boards oriented in one direction. While automated handling equipment can be designed for this, often it can operate faster and more effectively if the bottom edges of a pallet have bottom boards oriented in both directions. For example, it may not need to turn a pallet to rack it, and operation is less sensitive to pallet orientation.
The least expensive way to improve a pallet is usually to specify better nails. With non-wood pallets, a controlled coefficient of friction is often helpful to prevent the pallet from slipping from forks and racks. Stiffer pallets are more durable, and are handled more easily by automated equipment.
If a pallet does not need to be lifted from all four sides, two-way pallets with unnotched stringers may be used, with the additional benefits of added rigidity and strength. Specifying tolerances on flatness and water content may help the supplier meet target requirements. Inspection of pallets, whether in person or by a third-party (such as “SPEQ” inspected pallets) offer additional assurance of quality.
The main processes that are used to manufacture wooden pallets:
- Material selection
- Cutting wood plate / block
- Chamfering (depends on the demand)
- Nailing wooden pallet
Plastic Pallets For Sale
Plastic pallets are often made of new HDPE or recycled PET (drink bottles). They are usually extremely durable, lasting for a hundred trips or more, and resist weathering, rot, chemicals and corrosion. The benefits of plastic pallets over wood pallets include the ability to be easily sanitized, resistance to odor, fire retardancy, longer service life span, durability and better product protection, non-splintering, and lighter weight, thus saving on transportation and labor costs and making them safer and more environmentally friendly.
They often stack. Plastic pallets are exempt by inspection for biosafety concerns, and easily sanitize for international shipping. HDPE is impervious to most acids, and toxic chemicals clean from them more easily.
Some plastic pallets can collapse from plastic creep if used to store heavy loads for long periods. Plastic pallets cannot easily be repaired, and can be ten times as expensive as hardwood, so they are often used by logistics service providers who can profit from their durability and stackability.
The large supply chains have increased the use of plastic pallets as many organisations seek to reduce costs through waste, transport and health & safety. Pallets and dollies can be combined (for example the Pally), eliminating pallet instability and the need for additional lifting equipment along with creating valuable space in busy operating environments.
They also deliver significant time and cost savings by reducing supply chain handling. Plastics’ reusability has contributed to an increase in usage of plastic pallets. (buy wood pallets, wooden pallets, pallets for sale near me, free pallets near me, amazon pallets, pallets)
Plastic Pallets For Sale are produced and used widely in the U.S. and Europe, spurred by the adoption of the ISPM 15. A full comparison of wood vs plastic can be made by a life cycle analysis. Plastic pallets can cost 10 times as much as hardwood pallets and even more expensive compared to cheap expendable softwood pallets. RFID chips can be molded into the pallets to monitor locations and track inventory.
There are six main types of plastic processes that are used to manufacture pallets:
- High pressure injection molding
- Structural foam molding
- Compression molding
- Rotational molding
- Profile extrusion
Paper Pallets For Sale
Paper pallets, also referred to as “ecopallets”, are often used for light loads, but engineered paper pallets are increasingly used for loads that compare with wood. Paper pallets are also used where recycling and easy disposal is important. New designs of ecopallets have been made from just two flat pieces of corrugated board (no glue/staples) and weigh just 4.5 kg (9.9 lb), offering dramatic freight savings.
Ecopallets are also ISPM 15 exempt, negating fumigation and barrier “slip” sheets. They are cleaner, safer, and provide a cost-saving eco-friendly alternative to other pallet materials. Some engineered Corrugated pallets offer a significant reduced height, providing substantial freight cost reduction. Low profile hand pallet trucks allow picking up pallets as low as 25 mm. (buy wood pallets, wooden pallets, pallets for sale near me, free pallets near me, amazon pallets, pallets)
Steel Pallets For Sale
Steel pallets are strong and are used for heavy loads, high-stacking loads, long term dry storage, and loads moved by abusive logistic systems. They are often used for military ammunition. Metal pallets make up less than 1% of the market. Materials include carbon steel, stainless steel, and aluminum. Of these, carbon steel offers excellent durability at the lowest cost. Stainless steel doesn’t require a paint coating, and is preferred for such applications as clean room environments.
Carbon steel units are expensive compared to wood, and stainless and aluminum cost about 2–3 times that of carbon steel. Long term costs, however, can be lower than wood. General advantages of metal pallets are high strength and stiffness, excellent durability, resistance to bugs, the absence of splinters, sanitization, and recyclability.
Disadvantages include a higher initial price, significant weight, low friction, and susceptibility to rusting (in the case of carbon steel). Metal is primarily used in captive or closed loop environments where durability and product protection are key performance requirements. Metal units today are increasingly price competitive and lighter in weight. Primary industries that use metal pallets include automotive, pharmaceutical, lawn tractors, motorcycles, and tires.
Aluminum pallets are stronger than wood or plastic, lighter than steel, and resist weather, rotting, plastic creep and corrosion. They are sometimes used for air-freight, long-term outdoor or at-sea storage, or military transport.